those which are chased by almost every person 济南高速4车追尾 郎朗钢琴广场揭幕

Self-Improvement Talking about goals or pursuing "goals" in a vague sense is unsatisfying. This muddiness could very well be part of the reason why the best laid goals for the New Year often go awry. It therefore is necessary to roughly diagram a number of goal types that help our understanding of how to target the right type of goal for the correct situation. Short-term Goals: This is a general understanding of goals which are usually conditionally valuable to some larger, long-term goal. While the overall nature of "short-term goal" is only slightly less vague than "goals", it is a step in a more effective direction. For example, a New Year’s resolution to stop smoking entirely would need short term goals such as "I will smoke one less cigarette today." It is plain to see that short-term goals are useful, but only to the extent that they lead to one’s overall. Long-term Goals: Contrarily we have long-term goals; the thing that is ultimately being worked toward. Long-term goals have a very wide range, but these goals are more in-depth and consequently more gratifying than Immediate goals. To take the smoking example, "quitting smoking" is a better achievement than "smoking one less cigarette today" for readily apparent reasons. And it is for these reasons that both make long-term goals definitively more sufficient to one’s well-being relative to other types of goals. Achievable/Unachievable Goals: This may seem an obvious argument to make, but it is worth tabling, since some goals are simply too lofty to pursue. In many cases, goals which seem plausible to the subject are far beyond their abilities. These kinds of goals can certainly lead to vexation, anxiety, stress, and disappointment because the person has the delusion that they can achieve an unachievable goal. This is not to be unduly pessimistic about goal striving, but it does seem to be the case that in certain instances it is a good idea to think about whether or not a specific goal is actually attainable. If it is not attainable, then trying to secure the goal in question not only will be a time suck, but it will also cause the goal striver to become downtrodden. It is then a good idea to assess one’s goals and ensure that it is actually achievable. Essentially, grounding one’s goals can contribute to the mood connected to goal striving, which is a very important aspect of proactively attaining current and future goals. Judgment and Development Goals: Another way of interpreting goals is to reason with them them in terms of their relation to the self. In this way, judgment goals are individual attempts to validate an attribute or trait in oneself. For example, a judgment goal would be searching for evidence that one is smart, and looks for evidence that confirms this intelligence while filtering conflicting evidence. A development goal on the other hand involves the effort to secure the desired attribute or trait. Instead of searching for evidence that one is smart, the person works to improve to become intelligent. The main difference is basically between passive and active goals. In judgment goals, a person rationalizes the position to justify a goal, whereas development goals demand commitment to attain a desired trait. Idiographic and Nomothetic Goals: The distinction between idiographic and nomothetic goals is easy. Idiographic goals are most similar to ‘subjective’ goals (those which are fairly distinctive to each person), while nomothetic goals are ‘objective goals’ (those which are chased by almost every person). These objective intentions are separated into three categories: goals of achievement, goals of affiliation, and goals of power. For example, a nomothetic goal could be seeking the close company of others, while an idiographic goal may be learning to play the bongo drums. Extrinsic Goals: Delving into scientific interpretations of goals, we find two additional types that are defined in the scale of humanistic psychology. The first are the class of ‘extrinsic goals’, the second, ‘intrinsic’. Between the two there is a more ideal type – intrinsic. However it is crucial to address both. Extrinsic goals are "those motivated primarily by defensiveness and security needs and are reflected in pursuits for wealth, possessions, status, popularity, attractiveness, and image." These external pursuits are less than optimal for a variety of reasons, but basically they are insufficient to well-being because they are contingent upon externalities of which an individual has far less ability to control. These superficial pursuits arguably have no inherent value or meaning, do not resolve existential conflicts, contribute little to internal self-improvement, do not advance psychological awareness of the subject, and as such cannot gratify establishing meaning or contentment in one’s life. Because the focus is on outward objects, one’s happiness is contingent upon these objects to which the subject is unable to really control, consequently yielding his or her happiness to the whims of the outside world. Intrinsic Goals: Intrinsic goals on the other hand, are inclined toward the inward integrity of the person. To be more specific, "intrinsic values are in theory directly motivated by psychological desires. Intrinsic values are exemplified by those for individual development and self-acceptance, affiliation and intimacy, and a sense of generativity and association to the broader community. Such values are more likely to lead people to engage in behaviors and have experience that are satisfying in their own right and that contribute strongly to individual’s growth and psychosocial development. The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic goals should be clear – strengthening and attending to psychological and internal needs make an individual more resilient to outside forces that may affect their happiness, whereas extrinsic goals depend on these variablefluctuating forces that facilitate one’s happiness. The best analogy would be warm versus cold-blooded organisms. Warm-blooded organisms regulate a stable temperature despite external variables. Cold-blooded animals’ temperature depends on the outside temperature. It seems intuitive that a static happiness, much like a stable warm-blooded temperature is preferred to a happiness that must be persistantly attended to, much like a cold-blooded temperature. Life and Existential Goals: Life and existential goals can be understood as long-term goals, but since they include a person’s life and meaning, there does seem to be a clear cut difference between mere "long-term" goals and goals that involve a significant holistic overview of one’s life. Life goals can also be understood as a type of nomothetic goal, insofar as they are pursued by virtually everyone. Happiness is one such goal. Not only does everyone want to be content, it is also a goal since it has been regarded as something that can be achieved. Similarly, existential goals provide meaning in one’s life that once again, if satisfied, would prove to be a sufficient goal in and of itself. This may seem a bit abstract, but it does make sense after some consideration. Life goals such as happiness and existential goals such as deciding the meaning of one’s life are not conditionally important – they are valuable in and of themselves. For these reasons they are kept apart from "long-term" goals because long-term goals are, in almost every case, conditionally valuable to happiness and existential completion. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: